English Grammar

 Table of Contents

Tense


Familiarization with the syllabus of SSC

Marks distribution of SSC English

Total marks-200

1.     English one- 100

2.     English two- 100

English one

a.     Reading- 50

b.     Writing- 50

English two

a.     Grammar- 60

b.     Writing- 40

Writing topic

1st paper

1.     Paragraph-10

2.     Completing story-10

3.     Graph/pie chart description-10

4.     Informal letter-10

5.     Dialogue-10

2nd paper

1.     CV-08

2.     Formal letter/application-10

3.     Paragraph-10

4.     Composition-12

Total marks for writing-90

 

 

Grammar

1.     She is taking tea.

2.     She takes tea.(Present simple/indefinite)

3.     She was taking tea.(Past continuous)

4.     She has taken tea.(Present perfect)

5.     She will take tea.(Future indefinite)

 

Present Indefinite Tense

Affirmative

1.     She takes tea.

Negative

2.     She does not take tea.

3.     They do not take tea.

Interrogative

1.     Does she take tea?

Negative-interrogative

1.     Doesn’t she take tea?

 

1.     I play ludu. (aff)

2.     I do not play ludu.(Neg

3.     Do I play ludu?(Int

4.     Don’t I play ludu?(Neg-int

 

Md. Badrul Alam(Faisal)

 

     Transformation-SSC-marks-10

1.     Affirmative-negative and vice versa

2.     Assertive- Interrogative

3.     Assertive-exclamatory

4.     Voice

5.     Degree

6.     Simple-complex-compound

 

Affirmative-negative

Only/alone

1.     Only he can do it.

Neg- None but he can do it.

2.     Allah alone can help us.

Neg- None but Allah can help us.

3.     I have only a few pens.

Neg- I have nothing but a few pens.

4.     He is only 15.

Neg- He is not more than 15.

5.     A: Everyone likes flower.

N: There is no one but likes flower.

6.     A: You must do it.

Neg- You cannot but do it.

7.     A: He is always punctual.

Neg- He is never late.

8.     A: He is the best boy in our class.

Neg- No other boy in our class is as good as he.

9.     A: She takes tea.

Neg- Doesn’t she take tea?

10.                        A: As soon as he saw police, he ran away.

Neg- No sooner had he seen police than he ran away.

 

Assertive-interrogative

1.     He is a student.

Int- Isn’t he a student?

2.     He is not a student.

Int- Is he a student?

3.     He takes tea.

Int- Doesn’t he take tea?

4.     He took tea.

Int- Didn’t he take tea?

5.     He will take tea.

Int- Won’t he take tea?

 

Assertive-Exclamatory

1.     The rose is a beautiful flower.

Ex- What a beautiful flower the rose is!

2.     The rose is beautiful.

3.     Ex- How beautiful the rose is!

 

 

 

Language skills and knowledge

Skills- 4

1.     Listening

2.     Speaking

3.     Reading

4.     Writing

Knowledge

1.     Vocabulary

2.     Grammar-60

 

     Degree of adjective

1.     Positive

2.     Comparative

3.     Superlative

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

good

better

best

bad

worse

worst

nice

nicer

nicest

fine

finer

finest

beautiful

More beautiful

Most beautiful

tall

taller

tallest

 

1.     Superlative: He is the best boy in the class.

2.     Comparative: He is better than any other boy in the class.

3.     Positive: No other boy in the class is so/as good as he.

 

 

4.     S: He is one of the best boys in the class.

5.     C: He is better than most other boys in the class.

6.     P: Very few boys in the class are as good as he.

CW-1

1.     S: Munna is the nicest player in our team.

2.     C: Munna is nicer than any other player in our team.

3.     P: No other player in our team is as nice as Munna.

4.     S: Munna is one of the nicest players in our team.

5.     C: Munna is nicer than most other players in our team.

6.     P: Very few players in our team are as nice as Munna.

CW-2

1.     S: He is the most intelligent boy in our area.

2.     C: He is more intelligent than any other boy in our area.

3.     P: No other boy in our area is as intelligent as he.

4.     S: He is one of the most intelligent boys in our area.

5.     C: He is more intelligent than most other boys in our area.

6.     P: Very few boys in our area are as intelligent as he.

 

Positive to comparative

Positive to superlative

Comparative to positive

Comparative to superlative

Superlative to positive

Superlative to comparative

1.     P: Very few boys in our country are as smart as he.

2.     C: He is smarter than most other boys in our country.

3.     S: He is one of the smartest boys in our country.

 

5. Voice

       Present Indefinite Tense

Auxiliary verb: am, is, are

1.     Active: She takes tea.

2.     Passive: Tea is taken by her.

3.     A: I know him.

4.     P: He is known to me.

 

Past Indefinite Tense

Auxiliary verb: was, were

1.     A: She took tea.

2.     P: Tea was taken by her.

 

Future Indefinite

Auxiliary verb: shall be/will be

1.     A: She will take tea.

2.     Tea will be taken by her.

CW-1

1.     A: They will play football.

2.     A: I ate mangoes.

3.     A: She wrote a letter.

4.     A: He plays cricket.

 

Present continuous tense

Auxiliary verb: am being, is being, are being

1.     A: She is taking tea.

2.     P: Tea is being taken by her.

3.     A: He is eating mangoes.

4.     P: Mangoes are being eaten by him.

Past continuous

Auxiliary verb: was being, were being

1.     A: She was taking tea.

2.     P: Tea was being taken by her.

3.     A: He was eating mangoes.

4.     P: Mangoes were being eaten by him.

 

Future continuous tense

Auxiliary verb: shall be being, will be being

1.     A: She will be taking tea.

2.     P: Tea will be being taken by her.

 

CW-2

1.     A: They will be playing ludu.

2.     A: Mother is making pithas.

3.     A: The boys are writing an article.

4.     A: He was watching TV.

 

 

 

 

Present perfect tense

Auxiliary verb: have been, has been

1.     A: I have taken tea.

2.     P: Tea has been taken by me.

3.     A: He has made it.

4.     P: It has been made by them.

 

Past perfect tense

Auxiliary verb: had been

1.     A: I had done the work.

2.     The work had been done by me.

 

Interrogative Sentence

1.     A: Does she take tea?

Assertive: She takes tea.

P: Tea is taken by her.

P: Is tea taken by her?

2.     A: Have you done the work?

Assertive: You have done the work.

P: The work has been done by you.

P: Has the work been done by you?

3.     Did she take tea?

Assertive: She took tea.

P: Tea was taken by her.

P: Was tea taken by her?

4.     A: Did they play ludu?

P- Was ludu played by them?

5.     A: Do you write article?

P: Is article written by you?

 

Imperative sentence

1.     A: Close the door.

P: Let the door be closed.

2.     A: Open the door.

P: Let the door be opened.

3.     A: Shut the window.

P: Let the window be shut.

4.     A: Please help me.

P: You are requested to help me.

5.     A: Don’t open the door.

P: Let not the door be opened.

 

Assertive sentence with double object

1.     A: The cow gives us milk.

P: We are given milk by the cow.

2.     A: Houses keep us safe and sound.

P: We are kept safe and sound in houses.

3.     A: My teachers, parents, relatives and neighbors love me.

P: I am loved by my teachers, parents, relatives and neighbors.

4.     A: Books introduce us to the realm of knowledge.

P: We are introduced to the realm of knowledge by books.

 

 

Simple-complex-compound

1.     Though he worked hard, he failed in the exam. (complex)

2.     He worked hard but he failed in the exam. (compound)

3.     In spite of working hard he failed in the exam. (simple)

 

Compound: and, but, or, nor, yet, so, and thus

Complex: after, before, although, though, even though, since, as, when, if, unless, until, whenever, whereas, while, who, which, what, that, so that.

1.     If you work hard you will pass. (complex)

2.     Work hard and you will pass. (compound)

3.     By working hard you will pass. (simple)

CW-1

1.     She is not only a good student but also a good singer. (compound)

2.     Besides being a good student she is a good singer. (simple)

CW-2

1.     We know what is right and what is wrong.

-         We know right and wrong. (simple)

2.     An industrious man will shine in life.

-         The man who is industrious will shine in life. (complex)

 

 

 

 

 

3.     Scientists spent many years with a view to inventing television. (Complex)

-         Scientists spent many years so that they could invent television.

4.     People spend their free time by watching television. (compound)

-         People watch television and thus spend their free time.

5.     To tell the truth, television is a blessing for us all.                     ( complex)

-         It is true to tell that television is a blessing for us all.

6.     We should read books to acquire knowledge. ( complex)

-         We should read books so that we can acquire knowledge.

7.     By reading books, we can enrich our mind. (compound)

-         We read books and thus we can enrich our mind.

8.     When we read good books, we discover new worlds. (simple)

-         By reading good books we discover new worlds.

9.     Mother Teresa was a noble hearted person. ( complex)

-         It was Mother Teresa who was a noble-hearted person.

10.                        She helped those who were helpless. (simple)

-         She helped the helpless.

 

 

 

 

 

Narration

Assertive

1.     Direct: He said to me, “I went to school yesterday.”

Indirect: He said to me that he had gone to school the previous day.

 

1.     Said to = said to

2.     Comma= that

3.     Person= 1st person – subject

                2nd person – object

                 3rd person – no change

4.     Tense:

 

Present indefinite- past indefinite

Present continuous- past continuous

Present perfect- past perfect

Present perfect continuous- past perfect continuous

Past indefinite- past perfect

Past continuous- past perfect continuous

Past perfect- no change

Past perfect continuous – no change

Shall/will- would

2.     D: He said to me, “I have taken tea.”

I: He said to me that he had taken tea.

3.     D: He said to me, “You did well.”

I: He said to me that I had done well.

Interrogative

1.     D: He said to me, “Have you done the work?”

I: He asked me if I had done the work.

2.     D: He said to me, “Where did you go?”

I: He asked me where I had gone.

 

1.     Said to= asked

2.     Comma= yes/no question-if/whether

                  Wh-question=wh-word

3.     Person

4.     Tense

 

CW-1

1.     D: He said to me, “Are they playing cricket?”

I: He asked me if they were playing cricket.

2.     D: He said to me, “Did you go to school yesterday?”

I: He asked me if I had gone to school the previous day.

3.     D: He said to me, “What is your name?”

I: He asked me what my name was.

4.     D: He said to me, “Where do you live?”

I: He asked me where I lived.

 

yesterday

The previous day

Last night

The previous night

come

go

it

that

tomorrow

The next day

Imperative

1.     D: He said to me, ”Please help me.”

I: He requested me to help him.

2.     D: Mother said to me, “Don’t make noise.”

I: Mother told me not to make noise.

I: Mother forbade me to make noise. forbid

3.     D: The teacher said to the student, “Open the window.”

I: The teacher told the student to open the window.

 

CW-1

1.     D: The officer said to the soldiers, “Fire.”

I: The officer ordered the soldiers to fire.

2.     D: He said to me, “Don’t close the door.”

I: He forbade me to close the door.

I: He told me not to close the door.

3.     D: He said to the guests, “Please take rest.”

I: He requested the guests to take rest.

 

Optative

1.     D: He said to me, “May you live long.”

I: He wished/prayed that I might live long.

Exclamatory

1.     D: He said to me, “What a beautiful flower it is!”

I: He exclaimed that it was a beautiful flower.

2.     I: He said to me, “Alas! I am failed.”

I: He exclaimed with sorrow that he was failed.

 

EX-B

1.     The old man is too weak to walk.

Assertive to Interrogative

1.     Ass: He is a student.

Int: Isn’t he a student?

2.     Ass: He is not a student.

Int: Is he a student?

3.     Ass: She takes tea.

Int: Doesn’t she take tea?

4.     Ass: She does not take tea.

Int: Does she take tea?

 

:: Since Mitu was sincere and hardworking, she earned the reward.

Transformation

1.     Mymensingh-200

a.     Very few problems of Dhaka city are as bad as waterlogging.

b.     Don’t people suffer a lot from waterlogging?

c.      It is the city dwellers who are the worst victim.

d.     Some measures have been taken to solve this problem by the government.

e.     Government must address the problem properly.

f.       We lead a very miserable life in the rainy season.

g.     We must go with this problem.

h.     This problem is the most intolerable phenomenon.

i.        The people living in the slum suffer terribly.

j.       This problem is worse than any other problem.

 

Class Test-1- Adamjee Cantonment Public School

English 1st paper

1.     EFT- Unit-1 & 2

2.     Paragraph:

a.     A village doctor

b.     A rickshaw puller

c.      Your favourite pastime

3.     Completing stories:

a.     A friend in need is a friend indeed

b.     A poor farmer and his goose

c.      The honesty of a woodcutter

4.     Informal letters:

a.     To a foreign friend describing the natural beauty of your country.

b.     About how you have celebrated the last 21st February.

c.      About your preparation for the ensuing exam.

5.     Dialogues:

a.     About your aim in life.

b.     About the necessity of reading newspaper.

c.      About climate change.

 

 

Marks distribution:

a.     MCQ: ---------------------------  05

b.     Open ended question ------  05

c.      Guided writing ---------------  10

 

English 2nd paper

1.     Grammar:

a.     Gap filling with clues

b.     Substitution table

c.      Tag question

d.     Narration

2.     Paragraph:

a.     A book fair you visited

b.     A railway station

c.      Your school library

d.     Air pollution

3.     CV:

a.     For the post of English/Bangla teacher

b.     For the post of senior/junior officer

 

Marks distribution:

a.     Gap filling with clues/table ------------  05

b.     Narration/tag question ----------------    05

c.      Paragraph/CV ----------------------------    10

 

 

 

Tag question

1.     He is a student, isn’t he?

2.     He is not a student, is he?

3.     She plays ludu, doesn’t she?

4.     She does not play ludu, does she?

5.     She played ludu, didn’t she?

6.     He will go to school, won’t he? Will not= won’t

7.     I shall do it, shan’t I? shall not = shan’t

8.     Do it, will you?/ won’t you?

9.     Discuss, will you?

10.                        Let’s move, shall we?

11.                        Let us go, shall we?

12.                        Most of the students who fail in English, don’t have strong foundation of grammar, do they?

 

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